When you edit fields (cells) in tables from the front-end with "in-line edit" option enabled, it allows all available records in that object to be selected.
1. Apply Data Source Filter to connection fields (713,791)
2. Apply Show options (1516) and original note on this parent request:
There should be an option in the builder when editing the columns in the table to allow a "only connected records" as opposed to "all records" when in-line editing, (exactly the way you would select which connected records are visible on fields when creating a form) that would allow a connected, or limited option menu to choose from and not all records available.
This would prevent an inline edit on a table that wouldn't be available to happen on a form that has "connected record" filter logic applied to those fields..